If anything all he does is present a subset of Davies' argument which stands in my opinion. Who plans their business by guessing the future.. The electric tram was the solution in more dense areas which cut into the need for horses.
A more rational approach would not have called for the destruction of urban street railway transport. What are the fatality rates from equine transport? The old adage Many times, what appears to be a dooms day crisis, is simply the labor pains of innovation! While horse manure was a problem, there was no failed conference and no Times prediction. He invents an conference, with no name, no dates, and no known attendees, and no citation. Search on Google prior to Sep and you cannot find any predictions of streets buried in manure.
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Horse manure was a problem, but these myths should not be used to argue against proper planning and management of resources as Davies does. I have no argument with the fact that horse manure was a problem. I have an issue with a fictional crisis, fictional conference, and fictional Times quote. The link provided mentions none of those. Currently, the conference has no name, no dates, no known attendees, and no records.
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Nor does any reference to it, the "crisis", or the Times quote appear online prior to Sep Why it's almost like it never happened. Water people of the world listen up.
The one carbon trap is phytoplankton. It converts it to sugar and oxygen with the help of sunlight and supplies most of the world's oxygen and is the beginning of the food cycle. Once sequestered the carbon along with its host sinks to the bottom of the sea where it resides until the oil men take it when it becomes energy for our power plants, factories, and cars thus releasing that carbon back into our atmosphere causing global warming.
It also becomes plastic and PCBs. The oceans are suffocating and fish are toxic and dying as a result. Atmospheric oxygen levels are also in decline and a few percentage point drop and no science will fix it. It is imminent and irreversible. We have one hope. I fought a twenty-year Federal Lawsuit to do just that and was met head on by government and industry. The CEOs are the new Chiefs of the world, they own the land, air, water, media and governments. They do not win by being brave but by being greedy.
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This story has a life of its own. The problem did exist, but there was no horse manure conference.
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Sort of like National Review's Vietnam "Pentagon Papers" of ; yes, they were a hoax, but they represented actual views, and some of the purported authors actually said they thought they HAD written some of the memos. Pyrmont Bridge, Sydney about Photo also used in last week's post. Click on photo to enlarge. The Great Horse manure Crisis of The urban equine:.
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As readers will be aware from the previous post about block boys, aka sparrow starvers, the lads who who were employed by local councils in Sydney and suburbs to clean the streets of horse manure. You can see a sparrow starver in the pic above, on the right on the kerb edge, white shirt and dark pants. Until the advent of motor vehicles, the main form of transportation, whether of people or goods, was by horse. By the horse population had reached problem levels. The cities functioned on horse power, literally.
London then the largest city in the world in had 11, cabs, all drawn by horses. There were also several thousand buses, each needing 12 horses per day. There were also various carts, drays, wagons and buggies for the transportation of goods and persons. Reliance upon equine transportation produced unpleasant consequences in respect : urine, flies, congestion, carcasses, and traffic accidents. The main problem, however, was manure.
A horse produces between 7 and 15 kilos of manure daily. In New York in , the population of , horses produced nearly 1, metric tons of horse manure per day, which all had to be swept up and disposed of. In addition, each horse produces nearly a litre of urine per day, which also ended up on the streets. The problems:. Consider the following:. It was considered better economics to work a small number of horses intensively than to have larger number and work them humanely, even if it meant that the harder-worked horses expired quicker.
In New York removed on average 41 dead horses from the streets per day. Beatings and whippings were common. Made worse by:. The manure problem was worsened by the following:. Whereas previously farmers had paid stable owners for the manure to use as fertiliser, by it was so plentiful that the stable owners had to pay the farmers to take it away. In summer, the farmers found it difficult to leave their crops to collect manure.
City officials and residents began to pile the manure on vacant lots in the US cities, with some lots having manure mountains up to 20m high. The city of New York is a good illustration of increasing reliance on horse transport and increasing numbers:. The Great Horse Manure Crisis of Writing in the Times of London in , one writer estimated that in 50 years every street in London would be buried under nine feet of manure. It seemed that The End of Civilisation As We Know It would be brought about, not by a meteor strike, global sickness or warfare, but by an excess of manure, by the urban equine.
Steven Davies, a senior lecturer in history at Manchester Metropolitan University in England, has written about this crisis and drawn some lessons from it, referring to it as the Great Horse Manure Crisis of , the name it is known by in internet discussions.
Some interim measures:. Problems with horse drawn transport were not new. At the turn of the 20th century, William Phelps Eno was responsible for:.
larunreca.tk These interim measures were not enough to solve the problem. White horses Alice Hoffman. The Horse and His Boy C. A summer of horses Carol Fenner. The Horse Coin David Wishart. Training thoroughbred horses Preston M.
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